Benefits of Forests for the Life of Living Things on Earth

Benefits of Forests for the Life of Living Things on Earth
The benefits of forests for life can be regarded as priceless "basic needs". Do you know what the function of forests for the survival of humanity in this world? This at first glance is like a useless question. But if you want to understand more deeply, it turns out that the existence of the forests in this world has no small effect on the survival of human life in this world. forest function Try to imagine if there is no forest in this world, then we can be sure that this world will feel very hot. Fresh water supplies will also quickly run out because there is no forest as a catchment area.
Floods will come every time there is a rainy season, because every drop of rain will flow directly to a lower altitude. You will also quickly feel stressed because this world has nothing filled with green leaves that can make the heart calm. To be sure the level of pollution will definitely increase, because there are no urban lungs, so that even a very mild disease, which is associated with the respiratory tract, will affect almost all urban communities.
What is clear is that without forests, oxygen production will be reduced a lot, so just to get fresh and fresh air will be very difficult. Here are 5 benefits of forests for humanity (Impact of forest ecosystem on human health), such as:
1. Forests as carbon sinks and depositors Trees can absorb CO2 (carbon dioxide) and turn it into wood. The carbon absorbed will remain bound for hundreds or even thousands of years. This is an important part of the functioning of forests of the earth's climate system. It can simply be explained that trees that flourish will absorb carbon dioxide from the surface of the earth's atmosphere and store it in leaves, roots, and forest soils.
2. Forests become the hanger of life Thousands or even millions of people around the world live actively in the forest. The forest becomes their source of livelihood which makes the forest their livelihood. Here are some examples of the use of forests as a source of livelihood: Timber is converted and processed into various furniture models for human satisfaction. Forests are also a source of life. Pine wood is turned into matchsticks. Various flora live in the forest as their native habitat, which is very important in the human ecosystem. More than 11 million people are employed and work in forest management and conversion throughout the universe.
3. Meeting human needs Various forest products are used as raw materials for various human needs products. From those directly related to wood (various furniture models, various rattan handicrafts and wood root crafts, etc.) to all needs that are not directly related to wood (forest honey bees, medicines derived from various herbal leaves, food, etc. )
4. Being a natural habitat for birds, insects, and mammals Forests are directly home to nearly half of the world's flora species. Coupled with various kinds of biological wealth, the more complete the function of forests, especially in the tropics as the richest biological owner in the world. Various insects and worms have the function of helping the soil nutrient cycle. But it is unfortunate that the extinction of several rare species began to occur in various parts of the earth. Mention some examples of animals that are almost extinct such as gorillas, orangutans, pandas, Bengal tigers, etc.
5. Flood Prevention Forests in the highlands will function as the largest water catchment areas as well as prevent landslides. The forest above will function as a barrier to the ground so that water is not easily eroded. While the function of forests in the lowlands will function as a barrier to water so as to prevent flooding. Can prevent damage to land, buildings and property. Lowland forests can also be a very natural habitat for a variety of wildlife.
6. Oxygen Sources Trees and plants produce oxygen, forests are the biggest source of oxygen and play an important role in maintaining oxygen supply throughout the earth.
7. Sources of water reserves Forests through various types of trees are one of the sources of reserves that carry out very large water absorption. Not surprisingly, if very large water reserves are found in the forest.
8. Prevent erosion and landslides Forests function to prevent erosion and landslides, the roots of plants and trees contained in forests are natural materials to prevent landslides that will occur in various regions.
9. Tourist Attractions Not a few who use the forest as an educational tourist attraction or a very high-value community. Forests can be a pleasant tourist spot if managed properly.
10. A place of research & study of biology In the forest there are various types of animals that can be used as various research studies and for other study purposes. Forests are one of the sources of studies that are in great demand by a variety of ecosystem experts.
11. Manage Climate Climate on earth is one of them influenced by good forest function. If there is a lot of forest in a country, it is certain that the air in the country is very cool and brings a fresh climate.
12. Sports facilities There are many types of sports that utilize the forest such as hiking, camping, and biking. Not infrequently the various types of sports utilize the forest as an official event. The benefits of forests are second to none, without forests, human life will become extinct and experience considerable difficulties. Keeping forests sustainable is various government programs around the world.

Understanding Information Technology, And Its Purpose and Function

Understanding Information Technology, And Its Purpose and Function
Mass communication has continuously needed technology to broaden its reach and expand its influence. From the primitive to the trendy societies, the story of mass communication has been that of changes shaped by enhancements in technology. the event of printing was a crucial turning purpose in manufacturing info or communication meant for mass audiences. However, every progressive progress that followed through technological advancement- whether or not in print, telecommunication, wireless communication, transportation, photography, broadcasting or computing – were further boosts to the reach and effectiveness of mass communication.
Over time, media practitioners, media watchers and also the general public tend to use the term New Media and Social Media interchangeably. Often, the term “New Media” is understanding new media in the newsgathering and employed to explain the “Social Media” whereas Social Media is employed to explain the New Media as a mass communication development equally. Bulgarian monetary unit Manovich (2001 p. 26) represented the new media as being inherent to computers or reckoning on them for the distribution of content on websites, human-computer interface, virtual worlds, video game, multimedia, laptop games, laptop animation, digital video, computer graphics in films and interactive laptop installations.
It is thus essential to notice that technology has been terribly instrumental in dynamic the character, reach and effectiveness of mass communication. the assorted watersheds within the development of mass communication ar traceable to advancements in technology. every stage of evolution bestows a singular feature that's recent and so, thought-about new. The emergence of the printed media between the Nineteen Twenties and Thirties was a brand new kind of media from what the globe was accustomed before then. this epoch, as driven by the web, is equally a brand new kind of mass media. Therefore, reckoning on the time one is interrogating, any new form/genre of the mass media is also thought-about a brand new media. in step with Brian Neese (2016. P. 1) “older sorts of media, like radio, tv and vinyl records, were once new”.
Understanding information technology in general is a study of design, implementation, development, support or management of computer-based information systems, especially in the application of hardware (hardware) and software (computer software). Simply put, the understanding of information technology is facilities that consist of hardware and software in supporting and improving the quality of information for every level of society in a fast and quality manner. Meanwhile, according to Wikipedia, the understanding of Information technology (IT) is a general term of technology to assist humans in making, changing, storing, communicating, and disseminating information. The purpose of information technology is to solve a problem, open creativity, increase effectiveness and efficiency in human activities.
Understanding Information Technology (IT) According to Experts
1. Haag and Keen (1996): Understanding information technology according to Haag and Keen that information technology is a set of tools that help you work with information and perform tasks related to information processing.
2. Oxford English Dictonary (OED): Information technology is hardware and software and can include networks and telecommunications which are usually in a business or business context.
3. Williams and Sawyer (2003): According to Williams and Sawyer, that the notion of information technology is technology that combines computing (computers) with high-speed communication lines that carry data, voice, and video.
4. Martin (1999): According to Martin, information technology is a technology not only on computer technology (hardware and software) that will be used to process and store information, but includes communication technology to send or disseminate information.

Project management is a human activity which is an integral part

Project management is a human activity which is an integral part
In the fifth century B.C., throughout the peak of the empire, the Jews were living in exile within the region of the empire. The Sovereign God; but, had totally different plans for His exiled individuals. Through prophets like Jeremiah and Ezekiel, the Lord God had declared that He would someday restore the covenant individuals to the secure land. The Old Testament Books of Esther, Ezra, and Book of Nehemiah chronicle events encompassing the Lord’s restoration of Judaic exiles to the secure Land. The book of Book of Nehemiahopens with the account of Nehemiah receiving a report concerning Jerusalem’s distress that its walls ar broken and its gates ar blazing.
Nehemiah as an example of project manager, Book of Nehemiah was no sermonizer or pastor; he was a Judaic attender to a king named ‘Artaxerxes’, reigned from the town of Susa. Book of Nehemiah acquires the king’s favor, and goes to Jerusalem with the king’s letters giving him safe passage and resources from the king’s forest. This understanding opens Book of Nehemiah to the commencement of a mighty project that is to be dead. As a result, this work presents a discourse on Book of Nehemiah as a decent example of project manager.
2. Nehemiah: a good Leader and Manager. God rose up Book of Nehemiah to accomplish a crucial mission; thus, God is that the active leading and leading. this is often evident in however He moves within the king’s heart and elevates individuals to try and do his bidding. this is often seen in each the lives of Book of Nehemiah and his modern, Ezra. Book of Nehemiah demonstrates the indisputable role of Providence in leadership. this is often still true nowadays. There aren't any shortcuts in leadership. The meteoric rise of leadership studies and also the attention that a lot of leaders attract could cause some to miss the straightforward proven fact that leadership is difficult. Book of Nehemiah exemplifies the interaction between prayer, planning, and onerous work; if that this
3 attributes is integral to project management. Although Book of Nehemiah Janus-faced a frightening project of reconstruction the walls of Jerusalem, this project was secondary to the plight of the individuals. Book of Nehemiah is thought to be the wall builder in Jerusalem, and this is often the theme that resonates within the book. however his story isn't solely concerning building the physical walls of Jerusalem for physical protection, it's additionally a story of building religious walls round the individuals with the Word of God and therefore build up the individuals similarly. Therefore, Book of Nehemiah managed the physical project that considerably affects the religious project of Jerusalem. From a transparent perspective, Book of Nehemiah rigorously selected his words, framing his concern in apolitical and nonreligious terms. In doing therefore, he calmed any potential suspicions. rather than straightaway telling the king what he wished to try and do, Book of Nehemiah sparked the king’s compassion and understanding.
A godly leader keeps leading even once the comes finish. actually Book of Nehemiah Janus-faced adversity and conflict within the inside of building the wall, a task that needed courage to envision to completion. once the wall was engineered, he continued to steer through political suggests that as a governor. seeable of this, the analysis any elaborates the background of this discourse (revealing what really transpired within the preparation process) within the next section of the analysis.
3. Background to the Discourse. Book of Nehemiah command the servant role of attender to King Artaxerxes of the Persian court within the capital town of Susa. within the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, Book of Nehemiah learned from his brother Hanani, visited him that the Jews survived captivity were quite agitated as a result of the walls of Jerusalem were softened and its gates were ruined by fireplace.

Effects of acid rain on the environment

Effects of acid rain on the environment
Acid Rain is acid rain that has a pH below 5.6. Increased acidity can occur due to the presence of certain compounds that dissolve in rain water. High levels of acidity can be dangerous for the environment around us. Acid Rain Process, Rain is one of the natural phenomena that occurs to maintain the balance of water on this earth. The process of rain formation is as follows: Water in rivers, seas and lakes evaporates into the air into water vapor. Then the water vapor becomes solid and forms clouds. Furthermore, water vapor will undergo a condensation process and form dew. Ordinary rainwater has many benefits, namely as a source of water for humans, plants and animals. Rainwater can also be used for electricity generation, used for fish farming, maintaining the balance of water in nature, as a source of clean water, impacts of acid rain on forest trees, an energy source and others. Just as happened in the process of the formation of rain, the process of formation of acid rain is also not much different. But what distinguishes the two is in the acid rain the source of the cause is the meeting between water vapor with carbon dioxide gas, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfur. This if it lasts longer can be dangerous for living things because not all living things can adapt to the environment that turns to acid.
In addition, the presence of acid rain can also affect the supply of clean water in the environment around us. The process of acid rain can be described as follows: Almost all the constituents of this earth are water. Water has a very important role for life. During the day the water in rivers and in the sea evaporates and moves towards the earth's layers. Furthermore, gases that have fused in the air and trigger acid rain. In this process there is a union between carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide with water vapor to form weak acids. In addition, hydrogen sulfur and sulfur oxide also fuse with water vapor which will produce strong acids.
This union can trigger acid rain. Some things that can cause acid rain are as follows: Sulfur and nitrogen produced from industry, electricity generation, from motor vehicles and ammonia produced from agricultural activities can cause acid rain. Both of these compounds are the result of the combustion process. In addition, sulfur is also a compound derived from forest fires and / or results of volcanic eruptions. Sulfur dioxide is one of the causes of acid rain. The compound is produced from various combustion processes such as industries that produce crude oil, palm oil mills and the metal industry. In addition, sources of sulfur oxide were also obtained from volcanic eruptions and motor vehicles. Nitrogen dioxide is a compound that causes acid rain.
These compounds are dangerous for the environment. The compound is produced from various processes such as high temperature combustion. An example is the chemical fertilizer and drug industries. Some of the gases that can cause acid rain are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Both of these compounds come from motor vehicle pollution and the results of the combustion process. These compounds when met with water can form carbonic acid or often known as a weak acid group. In addition, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide can also cause acid rain.
Both of these compounds are the result of heating and burning sulfur. Both of these compounds when met with water will form sulfuric acid which belongs to the group of strong acids. Acid rain is one of the very dangerous natural phenomena that causes various problems in the environment such as the disruption of ecosystems on earth. Therefore, you can take action to prevent acid rain. Acid rain also has a huge impact on the environment around us, both terrestrial, marine and marine environments. The following are some of the effects of acid rain on the environment:
1. Disturbed Marine Ecosystems The sea is the mouth of a river. Even the rain water that falls on the earth also comes down to the sea. However, if the rain water contains a lot of acid, it can cause disturbance to the ecosystem in the sea. This affects the number of fish and marine animal populations. Acid-containing rain can change the pH of the water so that fish that cannot adapt to changes in pH will die and if this condition lasts longer it can trigger extinction. In addition, the presence of acid rain can disrupt the food chain in the sea.
2. Stunted Root Growth Acid content in rainwater can enter the soil and cause difficulty in root development and plant growth to be disrupted. In addition, it also causes the plant to collapse quickly because the root system is not strong.
3. Cause Erosion and Reduce Soil Fertility Acid rain has a big effect on soil pollution. In addition, the presence of acid content causes the loss of minerals and various chemical compounds in it. This results in erosion and decreases soil fertility. In addition, the result of acid rain is that the soil becomes barren and kills various microorganisms in the soil so that the soil becomes less good for planting crops.
4. Disrupt Health Acid rain can trigger disease in the respiratory system. The smell that appears can interfere with your breathing, especially for those with asthma. In addition, acid rain also affects the health of your skin, which causes skin irritation. These conditions if left unchecked can cause death.

The shielding gas composition affects the fabric transition

The shielding gas composition affects the fabric transition
Shielding gas and attachment parameters ought to be chosen in such the simplest way on manufacture sound and defect free attachment. Reference [3] mentioned that chemical element is costlier than chemical element, therefore, chemical element is commonly mixed with numerous percentages of chemical element or the other gas to get the benefits of every individual gas. Reference [4] studied the result of defending gas parameter on mechanical properties and microstructures of heat-affected zone and fusion zone on gas W arc attachment (GTAW) in metallic element alloy.
Reference [5] numerically studied the consequences of CO2 in shielding gas on arc plasma and metal driblet formation. the first, effect of shielding gas operate of the shielding gas is to safeguard the melted and heated metal from the damaging effects of the encompassing air and to produce appropriate conditions for the arc. Most welders in African nation weld while not victimization the suitable shielding gas and in needed composition to safeguard the weldments from the atmosphere [6]. The shielding gas composition affects the fabric transition from the melted conductor to the weld pool, that successively influences the number and size of the spatter created.
The metal transfer development and bead formation square measure powerfully influenced by the composition and rate of defending gases [7]. range of investigations has been performed to check the result of defending gas composition on mechanical properties of steel weldments, however its effects on the tensile properties of high carbon steels haven't been established [8]. From Literature many applied math techniques is accustomed verify the specified output responses through the event of mathematical equations to postulate the relationships between the input parameters and output variables in TIG attachment method [9-10]. Reference [11] had distributed experimental analysis to check the consequences of the attachment method parameters on attachment of soft-cast steel plates victimization gas metal arc attachment method by victimization Box Behnken style of response surface methodology.
Welding speed is modified employing a regulator. the space between the torch tip and work piece is controlled victimization the adjustable knob. The torch is mounted with the movable tractor unit. A W conductor is mounted within the torch and also the gases flows through it. this is often the most a part of TIG attachment setup that controls the number of current and voltage equipped throughout attachment. The torch was maintained at associate degree angle of roughly 90° to the work piece. Figure four shows the TIG attachment torch. Plate four shows the samples when attachment, weld specimen square measure shown in figure five. Figure six shows the universal testing machine that was accustomed get the response.
Materials: The key parameters thought of during this work square measure chemical element, carbon (iv) compound gases, attachment current and attachment voltage. The vary of the input variables used is shown in table one. a hundred thirty five items of high steel coupons, mensuration 60mm x 40mm x10mm every were used for the experiment. The experiment was performed twenty seven times, victimization five specimens for every run. Figure one shows the TIG attachment setup.
The attachment method combined 2 varieties of shielding gases to safeguard the weld specimen from part interference. during this paper, chemical element and carbon (iv) compound were used at completely different compositions. Figure a pair of shows the shielding gas cylinders and regulators housing the 2 varieties of gases used. Figure three shows TIG attachment torch that is mounted with it employing a clamp at a specific angle in order that throughout attachment a stable and continuous arc is created.

Utilization and Agriculture of Cocoa Plants

Utilization and Agriculture of Cocoa Plants
Theobroma cacao is the Latin name for the cacao tree. The best temperature for cocoa plants between 29-31 C and the minimum temperature between 19-22 C. Cocoa plants are very suitable in the average rainfall of 1,350-1990 mm / yr. On dry land cocoa can grow optimally if there is irrigation water. The world is one of the producers of cocoa. But unfortunately the productivity and quality of Indonesian cocoa is still low compared to tropical countries in Africa.
This is due to the lack of knowledge of cocoa farmers to process cocoa in post-harvest, good cocoa usually passes the fermentation method and then dried. Most cocoa farmers do not carry out fermentation methods so that the quality of the agicultural farm cocoa is still low. Therefore, dried cocoa beans, cocoa counseling is carried out in terms of pest control, fertilization, pruning to increase the production and quality of cocoa. When harvesting cocoa it should not be rotated and should not be pulled because it can damage the growth of cocoa plants. The process of pruning cocoa plants is very optimal at the beginning of the rainy season.
Cacao trees should not be too leafy because the sun cannot enter the cacao tree directly. Biochar can be added to the soil with a view to improving soil function and to reduce emissions from other biomass which will naturally reduce greenhouse gases. Biochar also has a sufficient carbon sequestration value. Biochar is a desirable soil material in many locations because of its ability to attract and retain water.
This is possible because of the porous structure and high surface area. As a result, nutrients, phosphorus and agricultural chemicals are maintained for the benefit of plants. Biochar can be an important tool to improve food security and diversity of agricultural land in areas with drained soil, scarce organic resources, and inadequate water and chemical fertilizer supplies. Biochar also improves the quality and quantity of water by increasing the retention of soil nutrients and agricultural chemicals for the use of plants and plants.
More nutrients live in the soil instead of leaching into ground water and cause pollution. The application of biochar to the soil is a new and unique approach to making a sink (sink) for long-term atmospheric co2 in terrestrial ecosystems. In the manufacturing process, about 50% of the carbon present in the base material will be contained in biochar, biological decomposition is usually less than 20% after 5-10 years, whereas in combustion only 3% of the carbon is left behind. Besides reducing emissions and increasing binding of greenhouse gases, soil fertility and crop production can also be increased.
The two main things of biochar's potential for agriculture are its high affinity for nutrients and their persistence. Biochar is more persistent in the soil, so all the benefits associated with nutrient retention and soil fertility can run longer than other organic materials that are normally given. Long-standing persistence makes biochar the first choice for reducing the impact of climate change. Although it can be an alternative energy source, the benefits of biochar are far greater if it is buried in the soil in realizing environmentally friendly agriculture.
The addition of biochar to the soil increases the availability of the main cation and phosphorus, the total n and the cation exchange capacity of the soil (ktk) which ultimately increases yield. The high availability of nutrients for plants is the result of increased nutrients directly from biochar, increased nutrient retention, and changes in soil microbial dynamics. Its long-term benefits for nutrient availability are associated with higher organic carbon stabilization along with slower nutrient release compared to the commonly used organic material. The role of biochar in increasing crop productivity is influenced by the amount added. Giving as much as 0.4 to 8 t c ha-1 is reported to increase productivity significantly between 20 - 220%.

Utilization of Ash Charcoal for Soil Fertility

Utilization of Ash Charcoal for Soil Fertility
Thematic Technical Training of Agriculture Crop Commodities. In line with other thematic training, the stages of education and training activities include the identification of specific problem areas / beneficiary areas, formulating priority issues so that themes are formed, designing problem solving in several aspects and planning escort actions and mentoring. Based on the identification of the problem, the level of pest and disease attacks on agricultural crops still occupies the throne of the problem. Pests and diseases that attack agricultural plants, among others, thrips, viruses, and anthracnose.
Recommended alternative controls include the use of biological agents, plant-based pesticides, technical culture and chemical pesticides based on principle 6 appropriately. Control of technical culture is also considered important as an effort to prevent the arrival of pests and plant diseases. One of the technical culture controls carried out is the addition of husk charcoal containing manure during land management, ash and charcoal their influence on soil quality. Husk charcoal is used as an alternative because of its content, its function as a media for biological agents and water retaining (rice is not easily washed). Husk charcoal contains SiO2 (52%), C (31%), K (0.3%), N (0.18%), F (0.08%), and calcium (0.14%).
It also contains other elements such as Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, CaO, MnO and Cu in small amounts and several types of organic matter. High silicate content can be beneficial for plants because it becomes more resistant to pests and diseases due to hardening of the tissue. Burnt husk is also used to increase potassium levels in the soil. (Anonymous, 2011) pH of husk charcoal between 8.5 - 9. This high pH can be used to increase the pH of acidic soils. The PH has the advantage of being less favored by weeds and bacteria. Husk charcoal has the ability to absorb low water and good porosity. This property is advantageous if it is used as a planting medium because it supports the improvement of soil structure due to better aeration and drainage.
According to Isro'i (2008) that the compost planting media brings many advantages, namely containing carbon (C) which makes the planting media become loose. This helps stimulate overall growth, especially stems, branches, and leaves as well as leaf green matter for photosynthesis and has the element phosphorus, potassium, which plants need compared to manure. The good condition of the growing media as a result of the influence of compost encourages plant roots to grow optimally thereby increasing the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
According to Lingga (in Eka, 2011) that as for the advantages in compost, among others: nutrients that are bound in insoluble organic compounds are converted into soluble organic compounds that are useful for plants, improve the structure of fertilized soil so as to facilitate absorption of rainwater, improve the ability of the soil to bind water so that the soil does not dry quickly, reduces erosion rates and provides a good environment for seed sprouts and plant roots. So that the husk charcoal compost is a good growing media used for the growth of chili plants.
Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to be able to provide nutrients in sufficient quantities and balance for growth and crop yields, soil fertility is one of the things that need to be considered in an agricultural business. Healthy and fertile soil will provide adequate nutrition to plants planted on it. Soil fertility is very closely related to the availability of nutrients available and can be absorbed by plants. Basically, nutrients are widely available in the soil. It's just that there are some problems related to the absorption and nature of these nutrients. There are some nutrients that are very abundant in nature, only plants can not utilize these nutrients directly.